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Luis 14 Divirta-se com o LOBIS HOMEM VideoLuis XIV de Francia, el rey Sol. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV, war ein französischer Prinz aus dem Haus Bourbon und von bis zu seinem Tod König von Frankreich und Navarra sowie Kofürst von Andorra. Ludwig XIV., französisch Louis XIV (* 5. September in Schloss Saint-Germain-en-Laye; † 1. September in Schloss Versailles), war ein französischer. Louis XIV bezeichnet: Ludwig XIV. (–), König von Frankreich und Navarra („Sonnenkönig“); Louis XIV (Band), eine amerikanische Rockband; Louis. und wenig kostet.» Louis XIV. Hinter der Fassade von Schloss Versailles. Hygiene.
Als Möglichkeit zur Revolte diente die Minderjährigkeit Ludwigs. Die Frondeure gaben vor, gegen die negativen Einflüsse des Leitenden Ministers Mazarin zu kämpfen.
Dieser wurde als Italiener allgemein wenig geschätzt; insbesondere die königlichen Prinzen nahmen ihm übel, dass er sie konsequent von jeder politischen Macht ausschloss.
Die Parlamente Oberste Gerichtshöfe hingegen wurden vom Englischen Bürgerkrieg beeinflusst und sahen eine Chance, ihre Privilegien gegenüber der Krone auszubauen.
Die Fronde scheiterte im Jahr , doch sollten die Unruhen noch bis zum Jahr anhalten. Juni  erfolgte die Krönung und Salbung des Königs in der Kathedrale von Reims , womit die Ordnung im Königreich, für jeden ersichtlich, wiederhergestellt war.
Die Krönung des Königs sollte für die Menschen bewusst als Symbol für Kontinuität und den Schutz Gottes über den König stehen.
Während des Bürgerkriegs kam der Kampf mit Spanien zum Erliegen, die Frondeure bekamen überdies Unterstützung von den Spaniern.
Nachdem wieder innerer Friede herrschte, konnte Frankreich seine Kräfte gegen Spanien bündeln und erzielte Erfolge durch Angriffe auf die Spanische Niederlande und die Invasion Spaniens, welche zur erneuten Besetzung Kataloniens führte.
Im Jahr gelang es Mazarin, das republikanische England unter Oliver Cromwell in einem Geheimvertrag zum Bundesgenossen gegen die Spanier zu gewinnen.
Spanien sah sich gezwungen, den Frieden zu suchen. König Philipp IV. Zwei Jahre später trafen beide Monarchen auf der Fasaneninsel , zwischen Frankreich und Spanien, zusammen und unterzeichneten den Pyrenäenfrieden.
Frankreich erwarb das Roussillon nördlich der Pyrenäen und bekam von den Spanischen Niederlanden das Artois und einige Nebenländer.
Die Infantin verzichtete auf ihr Erbrecht an der spanischen Krone gegen eine Mitgift von Dadurch blieb Maria Teresa älteste erbberechtigte Tochter des spanischen Königshauses.
Die Heirat zwischen Ludwig XIV. Juni in Saint-Jean-de-Luz statt. November wurde Dauphin Louis geboren.
Seit Ludwigs Kindheit führte Kardinal Mazarin die Geschäfte für den König. Als Mazarin am 9. März starb, war der jährige König gut auf sein Amt vorbereitet und verkündete dem Staatsrat, dass er keinen Leitenden Minister mehr einsetzen, sondern die Regierungsgeschäfte in eigener Regie führen werde.
Der Hof und die Minister waren zunächst irritiert, doch man meinte, es würde sich nur um eine kurze Phase handeln. Einer von diesen war Nicolas Fouquet , der Finanzminister.
Fouquet hatte Staatsgelder veruntreut und Befestigungen ohne Genehmigung des Königs bauen lassen. Letzteres interpretierte Ludwig als Vorbereitung einer Rebellion gegen seine Person.
Mit der neuen Regierung wurde ein Reformprogramm beschlossen, dessen Ziele die Förderung von Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft , der massive Ausbau von Flotte und Armee und eine tiefgreifende Reformierung der Bürokratie war.
Der Umbau der Armee wurde hingegen zum Hauptanliegen des Ministers Le Tellier und dessen Sohn, dem Marquis de Louvois. Der junge Ludwig XIV.
Diese Gelegenheit bot sich ihm bereits im Jahr beim Londoner Kutschenstreit , in dessen Folge Spanien den Vorrang des Königs von Frankreich in ganz Europa anerkennen musste.
Den europäischen Höfen wurde klar, dass Ludwig nicht die Absicht hatte, ein schwacher König zu sein. Im Jahr kam es zur Defensivallianz zwischen Frankreich und Holland; kurz darauf kaufte Ludwig XIV.
Doch der König wollte alle Welt nicht nur politisch überraschen, sondern auch seine Macht und seinen Reichtum zur Schau stellen.
Dies ging am besten durch prächtige, für den Barock typische Hoffeste. Europas Fürsten waren verblüfft und erstaunt über den Luxus dieser Vergnügungen und begannen zunehmend, den Lebensstil des französischen Monarchen nachzuahmen.
Im Jahr starb sein Onkel und Schwiegervater Philipp IV. Er forderte auf Grundlage des brabantischen Devolutionsrechts einen Erbteil für Frankreich, nach welchem Töchter aus erster Ehe ein vorrangiges Erbrecht haben.
Die Regentin wies die französischen Forderungen zurück, und Ludwig bereitete einen Krieg vor, der im Jahr ausbrach und bis ins Jahr darauf andauerte Devolutionskrieg.
Die Armeereformen des Königs waren bereits weit vorangeschritten. Er hatte mit einem stehenden Heer , wie zuvor der französische König Karl VII.
Es marschierte eine Armee von Spanien sah sich vor vollendete Tatsachen gestellt und hatte keine Mittel zur Gegenwehr. Der Sieg schien uneingeschränkt zu sein, doch fühlte sich nun Frankreichs Alliierter Holland von der Präsenz französischer Truppen bedroht.
Die holländischen Generalstaaten verbündeten sich im Jahr mit England und Schweden zur Tripelallianz gegen Ludwig XIV. Dieser sah sich nun gezwungen, bei den Verhandlungen in Aachen Abstriche von seinen Forderungen zu machen.
Er warf den Generalstaaten offen Undankbarkeit und sogar Verrat vor. Dies hielt ihn aber nicht davon ab, noch im selben Jahr das Grand Divertissement Royal in Versailles zu feiern, als Zeichen seines Triumphes.
Zuerst zerstörte er die Tripelallianz, indem er mit seinem Cousin Karl II. Danach annektierte Frankreich das Herzogtum Lothringen und schloss zahlreiche Bündnis- und Neutralitätsabkommen mit benachbarten Fürsten.
Sein Ziel war nicht, Holland zu annektieren, sondern er wollte nur ein Exempel statuieren und Handelsvorteile erzwingen. Eigentliches Ziel war die Bedrohung Spaniens.
Französische Truppen nahmen immer mehr Gebiete ein, die Holländer verloren den Kampf und nur die Öffnung der Deiche und die völlige Überflutung breiter Landschaften rettete sie vor der totalen militärischen Niederlage.
In dieser Situation wurde Johan de Witt durch Wilhelm III. Prinz von Oranien als Generalstatthalter der Provinzen abgelöst.
Dieser ging unverzüglich ein Bündnis mit Spanien und dem römisch-deutschen Kaiser Leopold I. Damit hatte Ludwig XIV. Im Jahr führte er persönlich die französischen Truppen bei der Belagerung von Maastricht.
Nach dem Abzug seiner Truppen aus Holland konnte Ludwig seine Armeen nun gegen Spanier und Kaiserliche verwenden. Zur Feier der Siege veranstaltete der König sein drittes berühmtes Fest, das Fest von Versailles.
Die Kämpfe zogen sich noch bis hin, verliefen jedoch höchst erfolgreich für Frankreich. Ludwig hielt während des Krieges Frankreich behielt dabei fast vollständig seine Eroberungen gegen Spanien und im Heiligen Römischen Reich.
Henri II de Navarre. Catherine de Navarre. Jeanne III de Navarre. Louise de Savoie. Louis XIII de France. Cosme I er de Toscane. Maria Salviati.
Philippe I er de Castille. Ferdinand I er du Saint-Empire. Jeanne I re de Castille. Jeanne d'Autriche. Anne Jagellon. Anne de Foix. Louis XIV de France.
Charles Quint. Philippe II d'Espagne. Manuel I er de Portugal. Isabelle de Portugal. Marie d'Aragon. By the middle of the s the Sun King was losing much of his shine.
Mazarin had taught him to work rigorously, and Louis maintained a punishing schedule throughout his life, shrugging off a series of minor illnesses and not listening to the advice of his physicians.
Eventually a broken arm put an end to his vigorous horseback riding, and gout ended his long walks around Versailles. He was wheeled to the throne room or carried to his carriage.
In he went through the tragedy of the death of his oldest son and the following year that of his oldest grandson. Therefore, the kings successor was his little five year old great grandson Louis Duke of Anjou, who became King Louis XV of France after the death of his great-grandfather in French kings after Louis XIV taxed a lot of money from the poor people to try and pay off the debt.
This is part of what led to the French Revolution. In a world that regarded territory, power, and wealth as paramount, Louis XIV was recognized as a great king.
He transformed France into the dominant nation in Europe, expanded its boundaries, and left his heirs secure in their possessions. Louis reached the height of his power in the s, and he protected what he had achieved for the next four decades in the face of a Europe united against him.
Moreover, he eventually realized his dream of seeing a Bourbon on the Spanish throne. Sucessor a. Nome completo. Filipe Carlos, Duque de Anjou. Com Francisca Atenas de Rochechouart, Marquesa de Montespan [ 20 ].
Francisca Maria de Bourbon. Maria de Luxemburgo. Henrique II de Navarra. It wasn't until Mazarin died in , when Louis XIV was in his 20s, that the young king finally took control of the French government.
Upon assuming full responsibility for the kingdom, Louis XIV quickly set about reforming France according to his own vision.
His first goal as absolute monarch was to centralize and rein in control of France. With the help of his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV established reforms that cut France's deficit and promoted industrial growth.
During his reign, Louis XIV managed to improve France's disorganized system of taxation and limit formerly haphazard borrowing practices. He also conveniently declared members of nobility exempt from paying taxes, causing them to become even more fiscally dependent on the crown.
In implementing administrative reforms toward a more orderly and stable French government, Louis XIV forced provincial nobles to relinquish their former political influence.
In so doing, he constructed a more centralized administration with the bourgeoisie, or middle class, as its foundation. Along with his changes to the government, Louis XIV created a number of programs and institutes to infuse more of the arts into French culture.
In this vein, the Academy of Inscriptions and Belle-Lettres was founded in , followed by the Royal Academy of Music in Louis XIV also had Colbert oversee the construction of the Paris Observatory from to This led to the bombardment of Brussels , in which more than 4, buildings were destroyed, including the entire city-center.
The strategy failed, as Namur fell three weeks later, but harmed Louis XIV's reputation: a century later, Napoleon deemed the bombardment "as barbarous as it was useless.
Peace was broached by Sweden in By , both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks began, but to no avail. Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the League of Augsburg and disbanded the Grand Alliance.
By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power. The treaty yielded many benefits for France.
Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border as it is to this day.
However, he returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms.
Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou , heir to the Spanish throne.
Lorraine , which had been occupied by the French since , was returned to its rightful Duke Leopold , albeit with a right of way to the French military.
William and Mary were recognised as joint sovereigns of the British Isles, and Louis withdrew support for James II. The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression.
Though in some respects the Treaty of Ryswick may appear a diplomatic defeat for Louis since he failed to place client rulers in control of the Palatinate or the Electorate of Cologne, he did in fact fulfill many of the aims laid down in his ultimatum.
By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years.
King Charles II ruled a vast empire comprising Spain, Naples , Sicily , Milan , the Spanish Netherlands, and numerous Spanish colonies.
He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria.
The French claim derived from Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria the older sister of Philip IV of Spain and his wife Maria Theresa Philip IV's eldest daughter.
Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from the eldest daughters in two generations.
However, their renunciation of succession rights complicated matters. In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis.
In contrast, no renunciations tainted the claims of the Emperor Leopold I's son Charles, Archduke of Austria , who was a grandson of Philip III's youngest daughter Maria Anna.
The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Prince Joseph Ferdinand , a grandson of Leopold I through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain the younger daughter of Philip IV.
In an attempt to avoid war, Louis signed the Treaty of the Hague with William III of England in This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand.
William III consented to permitting the Dauphin's new territories to become part of France when the latter succeeded to his father's throne.
In , he re-confirmed his will that named Joseph Ferdinand as his sole successor. Six months later, Joseph Ferdinand died. Therefore, in , Louis and William III concluded a fresh partitioning agreement, the Treaty of London.
This allocated Spain, the Low Countries, and the Spanish colonies to the Archduke. The Dauphin would receive all of Spain's Italian territories.
Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg , Charles II named the Archduke Charles as his sole heir. On his deathbed in , Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.
The clear demonstration of French military superiority for many decades before this time, the pro-French faction at the court of Spain, and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.
He thus offered the entire empire to the Dauphin's second son Philip, Duke of Anjou, provided it remained undivided. Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession, thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.
If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.
Louis was confronted with a difficult choice. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe.
He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise. He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".
Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. Philip, Duke of Anjou, thus became Philip V, King of Spain.
Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.
Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.
But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. Moreover, Louis sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands to evict Dutch garrisons and secure Dutch recognition of Philip V.
In , Philip transferred the asiento the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies to France, as a sign of the two nation's growing connections.
As tensions mounted, Louis decided to acknowledge James Stuart , the son of James II, as king of England on the latter's death, infuriating William III.
These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. French diplomacy secured Bavaria, Portugal, and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.
Even before war was officially declared, hostilities began with Imperial aggression in Italy. Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France.
The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility.
The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria , had to flee to the Spanish Netherlands.
The impact of this victory won the support of Portugal and Savoy. Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces.
Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde , which enabled them to invade France. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France.
Between and , over two million people died in two famines, made worse as foraging armies seized food supplies from the villages.
By the winter of —09, he was willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years.
But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him.
If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. Louis could not accept these terms. The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V.
The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in French forces elsewhere remained obdurate despite their defeats.
The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21, casualties, twice that of the French. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria.
In , the Emperor Leopold I died. His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings.
If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 's in the 16th century.
To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union. As a result of the fresh British perspective on the European balance of power, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht between Louis, Philip V of Spain , Anne, Queen of Great Britain , and the Dutch Republic.
In , after losing Landau and Freiburg , the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden.
In the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and its colonies, while Austria received the Spanish Netherlands and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy.
Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland , Rupert's Land , and Acadia in the Americas to Anne.
Britain gained the most from the treaty, but the final terms were much more favourable to France than those being discussed in peace negotiations in and Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.
Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin , known as Monseigneur.
Maria Theresa died in , whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion.
Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa.
He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.
He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine.
Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Catholic Church in France. He made his devotions daily regardless of where he was, following the liturgical calendar regularly.
Towards the middle and the end of his reign, the centre for the King's religious observances was usually the Chapelle Royale at Versailles.
Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of daily Mass, annual celebrations, such as those of Holy Week , and special ceremonies.
Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox , and Hyacinthe Rigaud , whose works became famous throughout Europe.
Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles.
With the exception of the current Royal Chapel built near the end of his reign , the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries.
At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.
The memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.
While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.
The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.
Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.
Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of the elegant Louvre Colonnade designed by three Frenchmen: Louis Le Vau , Charles Le Brun , and Claude Perrault.
With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis.
With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.
The King was thus portrayed largely in majesty or at war, notably against Spain. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large.
Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over formal portraits. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France.
This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in In the s, Louis began to be shown as a Roman emperor, the god Apollo , or Alexander the Great , as can be seen in many works of Charles Le Brun , such as sculpture, paintings, and the decor of major monuments.
The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness.
As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda.
There is no better illustration of this than in Hyacinthe Rigaud 's frequently-reproduced Portrait of Louis XIV of , in which a year-old Louis appears to stand on a set of unnaturally young legs.
Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character.
Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle. However, Rigaud's intention was to glorify the monarchy.
Rigaud's original, now housed in the Louvre , was originally meant as a gift to Louis' grandson, Philip V of Spain. However, Louis was so pleased with the work that he kept the original and commissioned a copy to be sent to his grandson.
That became the first of many copies, both in full and half-length formats, to be made by Rigaud, often with the help of his assistants. The portrait also became a model for French royal and imperial portraiture down to the time of Charles X over a century later.
In his work, Rigaud proclaims Louis' exalted royal status through his elegant stance and haughty expression, the royal regalia and throne, rich ceremonial fleur-de-lys robes, as well as the upright column in the background, which, together with the draperies, serves to frame this image of majesty.
In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule.
He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. To remind the people of these triumphs, Louis erected permanent triumphal arches in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.
Louis' reign marked the birth and infancy of the art of medallions.